|(Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India) , T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur-812007 Ph. 91-641-2427503|
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Litchi is the most important sub-tropical fruit of India, originated in China about 3000 years ago. Bihar is one of the important Litchi producing States. To study the economics, production, impact on income and employment, channels and efficiency of Litchi marketing and export, Muzaffarpur district having the highest production in the state was selected.
The findings of the study indicate that there is immense scope for development of area, production and productivity of Litchi in Bihar. The economics indicated that Re. 1 litchi orchard gives a benefit of Rs. 1.40 and the export performance indicated a vast potential in the state if proper infrastructural and other facilities are provided.
India is the 2nd largest producer of milk in the world. At macro level the production of milk appears to be substantial but the utilisation pattern at the rural producers' level is highly elastic to production seasonality, relative prices of milk products, local demand and the prices realised from the sale of milk. Hence, the study was conducted by selecting Muzaffarpur and Samastipur districts of Bihar with the objectives to estimate the production, retention, conversion of milk into various products across the seasons and to study their relative return and existing marketing channels of milk producers.
The findings of the study indicate that the conducive conditions of confidence, wisdom, energy and strength of the producers be created.
3. Economics of Pulses Production and Identification of Constraints in Raising their Production in Bihar
Pulses form a vital component in the Indian dietary system. But there is a huge gap between the demand and supply of pulses. The study was conducted in two Agro-Climatic Zones of Bihar comprising districts of Bhagalpur and Godda for two pulse crops, viz , Gram and Arhar respectively. The objectives of the study were to identify the socio-economic characteristics of pulse growers and their constraints and also to analyse the input - output relationship of pulse crop.
The findings of the study indicated that the area under pulse cultivation in the state remained stagnant but there has been a wide variation in the productivity of different pulses in the study area.
The life and economy of the tribal are mainly based on natural resources comprising of primitive methods of cultivation and collection of forest produce. Tribal people in Bihar collect various items of Minor Forest Produce (MFP), like Kendu leaf, Sal Seed, Mahua, Kusum, Karanj, Palas, Harra Bahera, Anwala, Mahua flower, Neem, Honey and Wax, Lac, Gum, Tamarind etc. from the vast forest tracts in which they habit to supplement there meagre income from agriculture. In order to identify the important MFPs to study the working of processing units of MFPs and the marketing machineries involved therein and to examine the prospect of value addition of these products. The study was conducted by selecting Sal seed from Ranchi circle and Kendu leaf from Hazaribagh circle and an all together hundred respondents were investigated. After identifying the main problems of collection, processing, and marketing of MFPs, a number of Action Points were suggested for improvement by the related Government Department/Agencies.
India has the distinction of being the largest producer and consumer of tea in the world. The North-East region produces more than 50% of the total production of the tea in the country. Under the New Area Development Scheme, the Kishanganj district of Bihar has occupied the leading position in tea cultivation. The total cultivated area under tea is about 1,600 hectares spread over in three blocks, viz., Pothia, Thakurganj and Kishanganj which form the universe of the study. The objectives of the study were to locate the potential areas of the tea crop, to estimate the economics of tea garden, to examine the importance of tea crops on income and employment, to identify the constraints and to study the future prospects. The findings of the study indicate that more than 3000 labourers used to get employment round the year and if its potential area of 10,000 hectares utilized, it would create 80.30 lakh human labour days annually. The main demand of tea producers of the study area from the Government of Bihar to declare the area as Non - Traditional Area for Tea Plantation.
Indian Agriculture had to face the most acute problems of pests, insects, diseases, weeds etc. during early green revolution period. Keeping in view the global concern of harmful effects of pesticides to the environment, a number of plant protection measures were introduced to limit the applications of the pesticides, which are known as Integrated Pest Management Programme. The study was undertaken in two districts of Bihar, viz., East Champaran and West Champaran with the objectives to examine the different cropping pattern, crop rotation, and standard of crops husbandry among the FFS and the Non-FFS group of farmers. The other objectives were to examine the impact of IPM programme, input supply system, environmental effect and also the estimation of the cost effectiveness of the programme.
The findings of the study indicate that the awareness percentage regarding different factors of pest control were more in FFS farmers than Non-FFS farmers.
The Co-operative movement in India has covered cent percent villages and about 60 percent rural households are within its fold. In the wake of Economic Reforms, the role and functions of co-operative sector in India are changing very fast. Changing economic policies are posing a threat to the co-operative sectors and, hence, suitable measures are needed to make the co-operative sector more compatible, methodical, self dependent, internationally viable and profitable. The study is confined to agricultural co-operative structure only having the objectives to review the working and performance of co-operative sectors in macro terms, to examine the impact of economic reforms and to suggest policy measures for development of co-operative in future.
A number of action points have been suggested for making the co-operative sector viable for combating the possible threats of new economic policy. Some basic features of co-operative movement in Bihar have been highlighted through SWOT analysis.
8. Production and Utilisation Pattern of Milk at Rural Producers' Level : An Analysis Across the States (Consolidated Report on Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Punjab & West Bengal)
In order to have comprehensive estimates on Milk production, retention, marketing, conversion, price realization through sale of milk and milk products, utilization of retained milk, etc., the present study was undertaken simultaneously in the states of Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab and West Bengal.
The findings of the study indicate that dairying in Andhra Pradesh has transformed itself into an important activity in rural area. The state ranks 7th in milk production in the country. The state of Bihar with its 5.29% of national landmass supports about 10.23% of human population and 15% of livestock of the country. Gujarat ranks 6th by contributing 7.7% of country's total milk production. Dairying in Gujarat is well established due to well reserved markets and reasonably good prices of milk. Punjab ranks 2nd in milk production - 9.90% of total national milk production. The rate of increase is 4.7% annually. The state of West Bengal ranks 12th.
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